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In political compliance with the government, the American media then modified the use of Yellow Peril ideology and criticised contemporary anti-Chinese laws as counterproductive to the war effort against Imperial Japan. However, in the course of his political and personal relations with the US government, and his China Lobby sponsors, Chiang requested the repeal of American anti-Chinese laws and to achieve the repeals, threatened to exclude the American business community from the "China Market", the economic fantasy that the China Lobby promised to the military and industrial interests of the US.

Science fiction writer William F. Wu , said that American adventure, crime, and detective pulp magazines in the s had many Yellow Peril characters, loosely based on Fu Manchu , and that although "most [Yellow Peril characters] were of Chinese descent", the Asian geopolitics of the time led people to see Japan as a threat to the United States.

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Most Europeans had never seen an Asian man or woman, and the great differences in language, custom and physique accounted for European paranoia about the nonwhite peoples from the Eastern world. In the late 19th century, Australians desiring a proper country and a white society, feared the Yellow Peril for possession of the continent. They usually featured an Asian invasion of the "empty north" of Australia, which was really populated by the Aboriginal Australians , the native non-white Other.

As Australian invasion literature, White or Yellow? In the near future, British capitalists manipulate the legal system and successfully arrange the mass immigration of Chinese workers to Australia, regardless of the socioeconomic consequences to Australian common folk and their society. The economic, cultural, and sexual conflicts that resulted from the capitalists' manipulation of the economy provoke a white-yellow race war throughout Australia.

The racialist representations of Yellow Peril ideology in the narrative of White or Yellow? Culturally, Asian-invasion novels expressed the white man's sexual fear of voracious Asian sexuality with scenes of a white woman in sexual peril, usually rape or seduction, aided by the sensual and moral release of opium. Thus defiled, the woman is a sexual untouchable to other white men. In , the Australian federal government adopted the White Australia policies, initiated with the Immigration Restriction Act , which generally excluded Asian peoples, especially the Chinese and the Melanesians.


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Historian C. Bean said that Australian racialist exclusion was "a vehement effort to maintain a high, Western standard of economy, society, and culture necessitating, at that stage, however it might be camouflaged, the rigid exclusion of Oriental peoples ". The equality of nations being a basic principle of the League of Nations, the High Contracting Parties agree to accord, as soon as possible, to all alien nationals of states, members of the League, equal and just treatment in every respect, making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality.

Aware that Britain opposed the formal inclusion of the clause to Article 21 of the Covenant, the conference chairman, US President Woodrow Wilson , prevented de jure racial equality among the nations of the world by unilaterally requiring a unanimous vote by the participant countries. On 11 April , most countries in the conference voted to include a universal clause for racial equality Article 21 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, opposed only by Britain and the US.

Moreover, to maintain the White Australia policy, the Australian government sided with Britain in the vote against Japan's clause for racial equality, a defeat in international relations that greatly influenced Imperial Japan to turn from co-operation to confrontation with the West. Then, France would possess enough soldiers to thwart the eventual flood of immigrants from Asia. The "Yellow Peril" has entered already into the imagination of the people, just as represented in the famous drawing [ Peoples of Europe, Guard Your Most Sacred Possessions ,] of the Emperor Wilhelm II: In a setting of conflagration and carnage, Japanese and Chinese hordes spread out over all Europe, crushing under their feet the ruins of our capital cities and destroying our civilizations, grown anemic due to the enjoyment of luxuries, and corrupted by the vanity of spirit.

Hence, little by little, there emerges the idea that even if a day must come and that day does not seem near the European peoples will cease to be their own enemies and even economic rivals, there will be a struggle ahead to face and there will rise a new peril, the yellow man.

Excess and masculinity in Asian cultural productions

The civilized world has always organized itself before and against a common adversary: for the Roman world, it was the barbarian; for the Christian world, it was Islam; for the world of tomorrow, it may well be the yellow man. And so we have the reappearance of this necessary concept, without which peoples do not know themselves, just as the "Me" only takes conscience of itself in opposition to the " non-Me ": The Enemy. Despite the Christian idealism of the civilizing mission , from the start of colonialisation in , the French exploited the land of Vietnam as inexhaustible and the Vietnamese people as beasts of burden.

French colonial official accompanied by a barely-dressed, blonde French woman. This will help us balance our trade deficit and give you a good laugh". In the 20th century, from their perspective, as non-white nations in a world order dominated by the white nations, the geopolitics of Ethiopia—Japan relations allowed Imperial Japan and Ethiopia to avoid European imperial colonisation of their countries and nations. Before the Second Italo-Ethiopian War — , Imperial Japan had given diplomatic and military support to Ethiopia against invasion by the Fascist Italy , which implied military assistance.

In response to that Asian anti-imperialism, Benito Mussolini ordered a Yellow Peril propaganda campaign by the Italian press, which represented Imperial Japan as the military, cultural, and existential threat to the Western world, by way of the dangerous "yellow race—black race" alliance meant to unite Asians and Africans against the white people of the world.

Madero killed Asian people Chinese, 5 Japanese , because they were deemed a cultural threat to the Mexican way of life. During and after the Mexican Revolution, the Roman Catholic prejudices of Yellow Peril ideology facilitated racial discrimination and violence against Chinese Mexicans, usually for "stealing jobs" from native Mexicans, etc. Anti—Chinese, nativist propaganda misrepresented the Chinese people as unhygienic, prone to immorality miscegenation, gambling, opium-smoking and spreading diseases that would biologically corrupt and degenerate La Raza the Mexican race and generally undermining the Mexican patriarchy.

The CuP greatly admired the Japanese for modernising their country while retaining its "Eastern spiritual essence", and it proclaimed its intention to transform the Ottoman Empire into the "Japan of the Near East". In an inversion of the Yellow Peril racism of the Western world, the Young Turks thought of entering an alliance with Imperial Japan that would unite all the peoples of "the East" to wage a war of extermination against the much-hated Western nations whose empires dominated the world.

From to , the Unionist Government of the Britain authorised the immigration to South Africa of approximately 63, Chinese labourers to work the gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin after the conclusion of the Second Boer War. After , most Chinese miners were repatriated to China because of the great opposition to them, as "coloured people", in the white society of South Africa, much like the anti—Chinese laws in the US during the early 20th century.

The mass immigration of indentured Chinese labourers to mine South African gold for wages lower than acceptable to the native white men, contributed to the electoral loss of the financially-conservative British Unionist government that then governed South Africa. On 26 March , approximately 80, people attended the social-protest demonstration against the use of Chinese labourers in the Transvaal was held in Hyde Park, London , to publicise the exploitation of Chinese South Africans. That this meeting, consisting of all classes of citizens of London, emphatically protests against the action of the Government in granting permission to import into South Africa indentured Chinese labour under conditions of slavery, and calls upon them to protect this new colony from the greed of capitalists and the Empire from degradation.

In the event, despite the racial violence between white South African miners and Chinese miners, the Unionist government achieved the economic recovery of South Africa after the Anglo—Boer War by making the gold mines of the Witwatersrand Basin the most productive in the world. In recent years, there have been very strong anti-Chinese feelings in Turkey owing to allegations of human rights abuses against the Muslim Turkic Uighur people in China's Xinjiang province.

Both have slanted eyes". In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, populist Prime Minister Richard Seddon compared the Chinese people to monkeys, and so used the Yellow Peril to promote racialist politics in New Zealand. In , in his first political speech, Seddon said that New Zealand did not wish her shores "deluged with Asiatic Tartars.

I would sooner address white men than these Chinese. You can't talk to them, you can't reason with them. All you can get from them is 'No savvy'". Moreover, in , in the city of Wellington, the fanatical white supremacist Lionel Terry murdered Joe Kum Yung, an old Chinese man, in protest against Asian immigration to New Zealand. Laws promulgated to limit Chinese immigration included a heavy poll tax , introduced in and lowered in , after Imperial Japan 's invasion and occupation of China. In , the poll tax was abolished, and the New Zealand government formally apologised to the Chinese populace of New Zealand.

The core of Yellow Peril ideology is the white man's fear of Oriental sexual voracity of the Seductress the Dragon Lady and the Lotus Blossom varieties and of the Seducer who possess an unnatural and perverse sex appeal, which is a moral and a mortal threat to the white civilisation of the Christian West.

The seductive Asian man wealthy and cultured was the more common form of white-male fear of the Asian sexual Other. In the Asian seducer, the sexual threat of the Yellow Peril was realised with successful sexual competition — seduction or rape — which irredeemably corrupted the white woman, beyond redemption.

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The threat of rape, the rape of white society dominated the yellow formula. The British or American hero, during the course of his battle against the yellow peril, overcomes numerous traps and obstacles in order to save his civilization, and the primary symbol of that civilization: white women. Stories featuring the Yellow Peril were arguments for white purity.

Certainly, the potential union of the Oriental and white implied at best, a form of beastly sodomy, and at worse, a Satanic marriage. The Yellow Peril stereotype easily became incorporated into Christian mythology, and the Oriental assumed the role of the devil or demon. The Oriental rape of white woman signified a spiritual damnation for the women, and at the larger level, white society. To assure commercial success, the cast of The Cheat featured the Japanese actor Sessue Hayakawa — who was a male sex symbol in the cinema of that time — which was a cultural fact that resonated on-screen and off-screen as a sexual threat to the existing racial hierarchy and sexual mores of white men in In Shanghai Express , General Henry Chang Warner Oland is a warlord of Eurasian origin Chinese and American , whom the narrative presents as an asexual man, which excludes him from the realm of Western sexual mores and the racialist order; thus, he is dangerous to the Westerners he holds hostage.

In , the Chinese civil war has rendered the country into a version of Hell, which a diverse group of Westerners must traverse by train, from Beijing to Shanghai , a voyage that turns for the worse when General Chang's soldiers hijack the train.

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Moreover, when the German opium smuggler Erich Baum Gustav von Seyffertitz insults Chang, the warlord symbolically rapes him by branding; the sadistic Chang derives sexual pleasure in branding Baum with a red-hot poker. Chang's desire to blind Capt. Harvey also is a castration metaphor, a taboo subject even for the intellectually permissive Production code in effect in Harvey as her lover, reaffirms the heterosexual appeal of the Western man and redeems her from prostitution.

Chang, and also undermines their inhumanity through the suffering of Hui Fei, who cries inconsolably after Chang raped her, such humanity allows the audience to sympathize with a non-white Other. Chang to save Harvey from being blinded by him; she explains that killing Chang regained the self-respect he had taken from her. Throughout, the narrative has suggested that Shanghai Lily and Hui Fei are more attracted to each other than to Capt. That detail of character, which suggests that Hui Fei is sexually abnormal, was socially daring drama in , because Western mores considered bisexuality to be unnatural.

Excess and Masculinity in Asian Cultural Productions

Harvey, while Hui Fei walks away alone, sad for having been raped and for losing her best friend to Capt. The Dragon Lady is a cultural representation of white fear of Asian female sexuality. The Asian seductress is a charming, beautiful, and sexually insatiable woman who readily and easily dominates men. As a sexual Other , the dragon-lady woman is a tempting, but morally degrading object of desire for the white man. In Western cinema genre, the cowboy town features an Asian woman who usually portrayed as a scheming prostitute, always seeking to use her sexuality charisma and physical sex-appeal to beguile and dominate the white man.

In the late 20th century, such a sexual representation of the Yellow Peril, introduced in the comic strip Terry and the Pirates 27 September , indicates that the Western imagination continues to associate Asia, as a region of exotic beauty and material opulence, of moral laxity and sensual excess, and of cultural decadence.

To the Westerner, the seductiveness of the Orient implies spiritual threat and hidden existential danger, derived from the desire to be enticed and hypnotized, to be entrapped and suffocated in a masochistic surrender of white identity, "to be engulfed by what Freudians might describe as a metaphoric womb—tomb". A variant Yellow-Peril seductress is presented in the white-saviour romance between a "White Knight" from the West and a "Lotus Blossom" from the East; each redeems the other by way of mutual romantic love.

Despite being a threat to the passive sexuality of white women, the romantic narrative favourably portrays the Lotus Blossom character as a woman who needs the love of a white man to rescue her from objectification by a flawed Asian culture.

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Only a white man can rescue her from such a cultural impasse, thereby, the narrative reaffirms the moral superiority of the Western world. She works as a sexual prostitute because of her poverty in Hong Kong, which, the story suggests, is the natural condition of the peoples of Asia. Moreover, in , the economic ascendancy of Hong Kong, as part of the "Asian Tiger Economy", had just begun to improve life for the Chinese.

Nonetheless, despite the film's historical inaccuracy of background, the cultural contrast of the representations of Suzie Wong and Kay O'Neill imply that if a Western woman wants to win a cultured, Western man like the painter Robert Lomax she should emulate the sexually passive prostitute Suzie Wong rather than the independent and "controlling" career-woman Kay O'Neill. Psychologically, the painter Lomax needs the prostitute Wong, as the muse whose eroticism inspires the self-discipline necessary for becoming an accomplished painter. As a Lotus Blossom stereotype of the Yellow Peril, the prostitute Suzie Wong is a single mother, of a child, by a Chinese man who abandoned them; the socially dramatic backstory of the woman emphasises the casual cruelty of Hong Kong's Asian society.

In the opera Miss Saigon , the country of Vietnam is represented as a beautifully exotic and mysterious place of sensuous beauty, incomprehensible savagery, and much filth.


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  • The first act, set in Saigon City, presents the adolescent prostitute-heroine named Kim, who is portrayed as a demure "Lotus Blossom" who is a sexually available and submissive Asian woman whose life is defined by her love for a white man, the American Marine Chris Scott. At the Dreamland brothel, Kim is the only woman who does not always dress in a bikini swimsuit. Despite working as a prostitute, the seventeen-year-old Kim is a virginal innocent who needs the Marine Chris to protect her from the cruel world of Saigon City.